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Marvel vs. The Wrecker Young Joshua Nelson. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin would be influential in Sobchak's career in Saint-Petersburg.
Sobchak would be influential in Putin's career in Moscow. His German was not good enough to meet RAF those times.
He met Germans to be recruited for wireless communications affairs together with an interpreter. He was involved in wireless communications technologies in South-East Asia due to trips of German engineers, recruited by him, there and to the West.
He then supposedly burnt only those files, that were KGB ones, in a few hours, but saved archives of the Soviet Cultural Center for the German authorities.
Nothing is told about selection criteria during burning, Stasi files and about files of other agencies of German Democratic republic and of the USSR.
He explained that many documents were left to Germany only because the furnace burst. But many documents of the KGB villa were sent to Moscow.
After the collapse of the Communist East German government , Putin was to resign from active KGB service because of suspicions aroused regarding his loyalty during demonstrations in Dresden and earlier, though the KGB and the Soviet army still operated in Germany, and he returned to Leningrad in early , where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University , reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov.
In , Putin described communism as "a blind alley, far away from the mainstream of civilization". In a interview with Oliver Stone , Putin said that he resigned from the KGB in , following the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev, as he did not agree with what had happened and did not want to be part of the intelligence in the new administration.
On 28 June , he became head of the Committee for External Relations of the Mayor's Office , with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments  and registering business ventures.
Within a year, Putin was investigated by the city legislative council led by Marina Salye. In , he managed the legislative election campaign for that party, and from through June , he was the leader of its Saint Petersburg branch.
In June , Sobchak lost his bid for reelection in Saint Petersburg, and Putin who had led his election campaign, refused from joining the team of his successor after this loss.
He occupied this position until March During his tenure, Putin was responsible for the foreign property of the state and organized the transfer of the former assets of the Soviet Union and Communist Party to the Russian Federation.
His predecessor in this position was Alexei Kudrin and his successor was Nikolai Patrushev , both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates.
On 25 May , Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of the Presidential Staff for the regions, in succession to Viktoriya Mitina ; and, on 15 July, he was appointed head of the commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of the power of the regions and head of the federal center attached to the president, replacing Sergey Shakhray.
After Putin's appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray's term as the head of the Commission 46 such agreements had been signed.
Later on that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency. On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors.
He was initially regarded as a Yeltsin loyalist; like other prime ministers of Boris Yeltsin, Putin did not choose ministers himself, his cabinet was determined by the presidential administration.
Yeltsin's main opponents and would-be successors were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin's emergence as a potential successor.
Following the Russian apartment bombings and the invasion of Daghestan by mudjahedins , including the former KGB agents, based in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria , Putin's law-and-order image and unrelenting approach to the Second Chechen War soon combined to raise his popularity and allowed him to overtake his rivals.
While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party ,  which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote On assuming this role, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya.
The first Presidential Decree that Putin signed, on 31 December , was titled "On guarantees for the former president of the Russian Federation and the members of his family".
On 30 December , yet another case against the prosecutor general was dropped "for lack of evidence", despite thousands of documents having been passed by Swiss prosecutors.
A case regarding Putin's alleged corruption in metal exports from was brought back by Marina Salye , but she was silenced and forced to leave Saint Petersburg.
The inauguration of President Putin occurred on 7 May The first major challenge to Putin's popularity came in August , when he was criticized for the alleged mishandling of the Kursk submarine disaster.
Between and , Putin set about the reconstruction of the impoverished condition of the country, apparently winning a power-struggle with the Russian oligarchs , reaching a 'grand bargain' with them.
This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain most of their powers, in exchange for their explicit support for—and alignment with—Putin's government.
The Moscow theater hostage crisis occurred in October Many in the Russian press and in the international media warned that the deaths of hostages in the special forces' rescue operation during the crisis would severely damage President Putin's popularity.
In , a referendum was held in Chechnya , adopting a new constitution which declares that the Republic of Chechnya is a part of Russia; on the other hand, the region did acquire autonomy.
The near year period prior to the rise of Putin after the dissolution of Soviet rule was a time of upheaval in Russia. The continued criminal prosecution of Russia's then richest man, President of Yukos oil and gas company Mikhail Khodorkovsky , for fraud and tax evasion was seen by the international press as a retaliation for Khodorkovsky's donations to both liberal and communist opponents of the Kremlin.
On 7 October , Anna Politkovskaya , a journalist who exposed corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya , was shot in the lobby of her apartment building, on Putin's birthday.
The death of Politkovskaya triggered international criticism, with accusations that Putin had failed to protect the country's new independent media.
In , " Dissenters' Marches " were organized by the opposition group The Other Russia ,  led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov.
Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as people who attempted to break through police lines.
Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a "free hand" in the run-up to the parliamentary election.
Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister. In December , United Russia won Putin was barred from a third consecutive term by the Constitution.
In a power-switching operation on 8 May , only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia , maintaining his political dominance.
Putin has said that overcoming the consequences of the world economic crisis was one of the two main achievements of his second Premiership.
Given United Russia's near-total dominance of Russian politics, many observers believed that Putin was assured of a third term. The move was expected to see Medvedev stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December, with a goal of becoming Prime Minister at the end of his presidential term.
After the parliamentary elections on 4 December , tens of thousands of Russians engaged in protests against alleged electoral fraud, the largest protests in Putin's time.
Protesters criticized Putin and United Russia and demanded annulment of the election results. On 24 September , while speaking at the United Russia party congress, Medvedev announced that he would recommend the party nominate Putin as its presidential candidate.
He also revealed that the two men had long ago cut a deal to allow Putin to run for president in On 4 March , Putin won the Russian presidential elections in the first round, with Anti-Putin protests took place during and directly after the presidential campaign.
The most notorious protest was the Pussy riot performance on 21 February, and subsequent trial. Some of the attendees stated that they had been paid to come, were forced to come by their employers, or were misled into believing that they were going to attend a folk festival instead.
Putin's presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May Other decrees concerned education , housing, skilled labor training, relations with the European Union , the defense industry , inter-ethnic relations, and other policy areas dealt with in Putin's program articles issued during the presidential campaign.
In and , Putin and the United Russia party backed stricter legislation against the LGBT community, in Saint Petersburg , Archangelsk and Novosibirsk ; a law called the Russian gay propaganda law , that is against "homosexual propaganda" which prohibits such symbols as the rainbow flag as well as published works containing homosexual content was adopted by the State Duma in June In June , Putin attended a televised rally of the All-Russia People's Front where he was elected head of the movement,  which was set up in In , Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
After the Euromaidan protests and the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych , Russian soldiers without insignias took control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea.
Russia then annexed the Republic of Crimea and City of Sevastopol after a referendum in which Crimeans voted to join the Russian Federation, according to official results.
In August Russian military vehicles crossed the border in several locations of Donetsk Oblast. In November , the Ukrainian military reported intensive movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist-controlled parts of eastern Ukraine.
The majority of members of the international community and organizations such as Amnesty International have condemned Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, accusing it of breaking international law and of violating Ukrainian sovereignty.
Many   members of the international community assumed that Putin's annexation of Crimea had initiated a completely new kind of Russian foreign policy.
While the act to annex the Crimea was bold and drastic, his "new" foreign policy may have more similarities to his older policies.
On 30 September , President Putin authorized Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War , following a formal request by the Syrian government for military help against rebel and jihadist groups.
The Russian military activities consisted of air strikes, cruise missile strikes and the use of front line advisors and Russian special forces against militant groups opposed to the Syrian government , including the Syrian opposition , as well as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL , al-Nusra Front al-Qaeda in the Levant , Tahrir al-Sham , Ahrar al-Sham and the Army of Conquest.
In January , a U. In September , Putin's administration interfered with the results of Russia's nationwide regional elections and manipulated it by eliminating all candidates in the opposition.
The event that was aimed at contributing to the ruling party, United Russia 's victory, also contributed to inciting mass protests for democracy, leading to large-scale arrests and cases of police brutality.
Putin suggested major constitutional amendments that could extend his political power after presidency. The next day, he was confirmed by the State Duma to the post   and appointed Prime Minister by Putin's decree.
On the same day, the President signed a decree on the structure of the Cabinet and appointed the proposed Ministers. On 15 March , Putin instructed to form a Working Group of the State Council to counteract the spread of coronavirus.
On 22 March , after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte , Putin arranged the Russian army to send military medics, special disinfection vehicles and other medical equipment to Italy , which was the European country hardest hit by the COVID pandemic.
On 24 March , Putin visited a hospital in Moscow's Kommunarka , where patients with coronavirus are kept, where he spoke with them and with doctors.
According to Dmitry Peskov, Putin passes daily tests for coronavirus, and his health is not in danger. On 25 March, President Putin announced in a televised address to the nation that the 22 April constitutional referendum would be postponed due to the coronavirus.
Additionally, a new tax on income from large deposits will be introduced in , and the tax on offshores will be increased.
Putin signed an executive order on 3 July to officially insert amendments into the Russian Constitution. These amendments took effect on 4 July Every day since 11 July, mass protests have been held in the Khabarovsk Krai in Russia's Far East in support of arrested regional governor Sergei Furgal.
Putin's domestic policies, particularly early in his first presidency, were aimed at creating a vertical power structure.
On 13 May , he issued a decree putting the 89 federal subjects of Russia into seven administrative federal districts and appointed a presidential envoy responsible for each of those districts whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative.
According to Stephen White , under the presidency of Putin Russia made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions and circumstances.
After Putin resumed the presidency in , his rule is best described as "manual management" as the Russians like to put it. Putin does whatever he wants, with little consideration to the consequences with one important caveat.
During the Russian financial crash of August , Putin learned that financial crises are politically destabilizing and must be avoided at all costs.
Therefore, he cares about financial stability. The period after also saw mass protests against the falsification of elections, censorship and toughening of free assembly laws.
In July , according to a law proposed by Putin and approved by the Federal Assembly of Russia , Putin gained the right to dismiss the heads of the 89 federal subjects.
In , the direct election of those heads usually called "governors" by popular vote was replaced with a system whereby they would be nominated by the president and approved or disapproved by regional legislatures.
During his first term in office, Putin opposed some of the Yeltsin-era oligarchs , as well as his political opponents, resulting in the exile or imprisonment of such people as Boris Berezovsky , Vladimir Gusinsky , and Mikhail Khodorkovsky ; other oligarchs such as Roman Abramovich and Arkady Rotenberg are friends and allies with Putin.
Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labor, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law.
Fueled by the s commodities boom including record high oil prices ,   under the Putin administration from to , an increase in income in USD terms was 4.
A fund for oil revenue allowed Russia to repay all of the Soviet Union's debts by In , Putin launched an industry consolidation programme to bring the main aircraft producing companies under a single umbrella organization, the United Aircraft Corporation UAC.
As noted by Russian journalists after the presidential inauguration, Putin has since repeatedly predicted that Russia will become "one of the world's fifth largest economies" roughly within 10 years from that date; thus far this target has not been achieved.
The ongoing financial crisis began in the second half of when the Russian ruble collapsed due to a decline in the price of oil and international sanctions against Russia.
These events in turn led to loss of investor confidence and capital flight. In , President Putin signed the Kyoto Protocol treaty designed to reduce greenhouse gases.
Putin personally supervises a number of protection programmes for rare and endangered animals in Russia, such as the Amur tiger , the white whale , the polar bear and the snow leopard.
The vast construction and restoration of churches started in the s, continued under Putin, and the state allowed the teaching of religion in schools parents are provided with a choice for their children to learn the basics of one of the traditional religions or secular ethics.
His approach to religious policy has been characterized as one of support for religious freedoms, but also the attempt to unify different religions under the authority of the state.
Putin regularly attends the most important services of the Russian Orthodox Church on the main Orthodox Christian holidays.
As president, he took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate , signed 17 May that restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the year schism.
Under Putin, the Hasidic FJCR became increasingly influential within the Jewish community, partly due to the influence of Federation-supporting businessmen mediated through their alliances with Putin, notably Lev Leviev and Roman Abramovich.
Russia's chief rabbi, Berel Lazar , said Putin "paid great attention to the needs of our community and related to us with a deep respect".
Lauder , the president of the World Jewish Congress , also praised Putin for making Russia "a country where Jews are welcome".
The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia's strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov during his meeting with Putin on 5 December , that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov , would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times.
While from the early s Russia started placing more money into its military and defense industry, it was only in that the full-scale Russian military reform began, aiming to modernize the Russian Armed Forces and making them significantly more effective.
Key elements of the reform included reducing the armed forces to a strength of one million; reducing the number of officers; centralising officer training from 65 military schools into 10 'systemic' military training centres; creating a professional NCO corps; reducing the size of the central command; introducing more civilian logistics and auxiliary staff; elimination of cadre-strength formations; reorganising the reserves; reorganising the army into a brigade system, and reorganising air forces into an airbase system instead of regiments.
The number of Russia's military districts was reduced to four. The term of draft service was reduced from two years to one. The gradual transition to the majority professional army by the late s was announced, and a large programme of supplying the Armed Forces with new military equipment and ships was started.
According to the Kremlin, Putin embarked a build up of Russia's nuclear capabilities because of U. President George W.
Bush's decision to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. Because of this, U. President Donald Trump announced the U.
Russians killed in such a conflict "will go to heaven as martyrs". Putin has also sought to increase Russian territorial claims in the Arctic and its military presence here.
In August , Russian expedition Arktika , part of research related to the Russian territorial extension claim , planted a flag on the seabed below the North Pole.
The new laws include the "foreign agents" law, which is widely regarded as over-broad by including Russian human rights organizations which receive some international grant funding, the treason law, and the assembly law which penalizes many expressions of dissent.
Scott Gehlbach, an American Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin—Madison , has claimed that since , Putin has reportedly punished journalists who challenge his official point of view.
Leighton, who worked for the CIA as a Soviet analyst in the s says, "Having muzzled Russia's print and broadcast media, Putin focused his energies on the Internet.
Orttung and Christopher Walker report:. In the early s, Putin and others in his government began promoting the idea in Russian media that they are the modern-day version of the 17th-century Romanov tsars who ended Russia's " Time of Troubles ", meaning they claim to be the peacemakers and stabilizers after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Putin has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural, and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and neo-liberalism and is identified by scholars with Russian conservatism.
For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in by the conservative right-wing journalist Alexander Prokhanov , stresses i Russian nationalism, ii the restoration of Russia's historical greatness, and iii systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies.
In cultural and social affairs Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in stating Putin's terms were like "a miracle of God.
Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state. Mark Woods, a Baptist minister and contributing editor to Christian Today , provides specific examples of how the Church has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine.
In , Putin led a successful effort on behalf of Sochi for the Winter Olympics and the Winter Paralympics ,  the first Winter Olympic Games to ever be hosted by Russia.
In , Putin stated that gay athletes would not face any discrimination at the Sochi Winter Olympics. Putin is chairman of the Russian Geographical Society 's board of trustees and is actively engaged in the protection of rare species.
Leonid Bershidsky analyzed Putin's interview with the Financial Times and concluded, "Putin is an imperialist of the old Soviet school, rather than a nationalist or a racist, and he has cooperated with, and promoted, people who are known to be gay.
Putin spoke favorably of artificial intelligence in regards to foreign policy, "Artificial intelligence is the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind.
It comes with colossal opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to predict. Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world.
Mikhail Khodorkovsky stated, "[Putin] would like to sit at a table with the US president, and maybe the president of China, and just these three will decide the fate of the world.
In , Putin wrote an article in the Hindu newspaper, saying that "The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October became a truly historic step".
The country has sought to strengthen ties especially with the People's Republic of China by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline and Trans-Siberian gas pipeline geared toward growing Chinese energy needs.
The announcement made during the SCO summit that Russia resumes on a permanent basis the long-distance patrol flights of its strategic bombers suspended in   in the light of joint Russian-Chinese military exercises, first-ever in history held on Russian territory,  made some experts believe that Putin is inclined to set up an anti- NATO bloc or the Asian version of OPEC.
A series of so-called colour revolutions in the post-Soviet states , namely the Rose Revolution in Georgia in , the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in , led to frictions in the relations of those countries with Russia.
In December , Putin criticized the Rose and Orange revolutions, saying: "If you have permanent revolutions you risk plunging the post-Soviet space into endless conflict".
Bush that "Ukraine is not even a state! They behaved rudely, irresponsibly and unprofessionally," he said, adding that the people who had come to power in Ukraine were "nationalists, neo-Nazis , Russophobes and anti-Semites ".
In late August , Putin stated: "People who have their own views on history and the history of our country may argue with me, but it seems to me that the Russian and Ukrainian peoples are practically one people".
However, the Georgian military was soon defeated in the resulting South Ossetia War after regular Russian forces entered South Ossetia and then Georgia proper, then also opened a second front in the other Georgian breakaway province of Abkhazia with Abkhazian forces.
Despite existing or past tensions between Russia and most of the post-Soviet states, Putin has followed the policy of Eurasian integration.
Putin endorsed the idea of a Eurasian Union in ;   the concept was proposed by the President of Kazakhstan in From , when Russia did not support the Iraq War and when Putin became ever more distant from the West in his internal and external policies, relations continued to deteriorate.
According to Russia scholar Stephen F. Cohen , the narrative of the mainstream U. In a January interview, Putin said Russia was in favor of a democratic multipolar world and strengthening the systems of international law.
In February , Putin criticized what he called the United States' monopolistic dominance in global relations, and "almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations".
He said the result of it is that "no one feels safe! Because no one can feel that international law is like a stone wall that will protect them.
Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race". Both Russian and American officials, however, denied the idea of a new Cold War. Bush with a counterproposal on 7 June which was declined.
Putin opposed Kosovo 's declaration of independence , warning supporters of that precedent that it would de facto destabilize the whole system of international relations.
Putin had good relations with former American President George W. Bush , and many western European leaders. His "cooler" and "more business-like" relationship with Germany's current chancellor, Angela Merkel is often attributed to Merkel's upbringing in the former DDR , where Putin was stationed as a KGB agent.
In late , Russian-American relations deteriorated further when the United States canceled a summit for the first time since after Putin gave asylum to Edward Snowden , who had leaked classified information from the NSA.
In , Russia was suspended from the G8 group as a result of its annexation of Crimea. A spokesman for Putin denied the reports. Secretary of State from to , of interfering in Russia's internal affairs ,  and in December , Clinton accused Putin of having a personal grudge against her.
With the election of Trump, Putin's favorability in the U. In , relations between Russia and the United Kingdom deteriorated when the United Kingdom granted political asylum to Putin's former patron, oligarch Boris Berezovsky.
In , the crisis in relations continued with expulsion of four Russian envoys over Russia's refusal to extradite former KGB bodyguard Andrei Lugovoi to face charges in the murder of Litvinenko.
In —16, the British Government conducted an inquiry into the death of Alexander Litvinenko. Its report was released in January Media analyst William Dunkerley, writing in The Guardian , criticised the inquiry as politically motivated, biased, lacking in evidence, and logically inconsistent.
On 4 March , former double agent Sergei Skripal was poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent in Salisbury.
Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the allegation "shocking and unpardonable diplomatic misconduct". Earlier in , Putin had re-established stronger ties with Fidel Castro 's Cuba.
In September , Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years. This was the first visit by a Russian president to Australia.
Putin was quoted as describing Iran as a "partner",  though he expressed concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme. It resembles medieval calls for crusades.
Is that what they call a democracy? Putin opposed any foreign intervention. Putin echoed Assad's argument that anti-regime militants were responsible for much of the bloodshed.
Did they become safer? Where are they heading? Nobody has an answer". One of them included shared investments between Russian sovereign wealth fund and the Emirati investment fund Mubadala.
After EU and U. Observers saw Putin's high approval ratings in 's as a consequence of significant improvements in living standards, and Russia's reassertion of itself on the world scene during his presidency.
Despite high approval for Putin, confidence in the Russian economy was low, dropping to levels in that rivaled the recent lows in at the height of the global economic crisis.
Newsweek reported in June that "An opinion poll by the Moscow-based Levada Center indicated that 67 percent held Putin personally responsible for high-level corruption".
In January , the percentage of Russians trusting the president hit a then-historic minimum — Critics state that Putin has moved Russia in an autocratic direction.
Many Russians credit Putin for reviving Russia's fortunes. Russia has suffered democratic backsliding during Putin's tenure. Freedom House has listed Russia as being "not free" since Putin cultivates an outdoor, sporty, tough guy public image , demonstrating his physical prowess and taking part in unusual or dangerous acts, such as extreme sports and interaction with wild animals,  part of a public relations approach that, according to Wired , "deliberately cultivates the macho , take-charge superhero image".
There are many songs about Putin. In , he was the Time Person of the Year. Putin has produced many aphorisms and catch-phrases known as putinisms.
Putin is known for his often tough and sharp language, often alluding to Russian jokes and folk sayings.
Putin sometimes uses Russian criminal jargon fenya , albeit not always correctly. In April , the Moskovsky Korrespondent reported that Putin had divorced Shkrebneva and was engaged to marry rhythmic gymnast Alina Kabaeva.
On 6 June , Putin and Shkrebneva announced that their marriage was over, and, on 1 April , the Kremlin confirmed that the divorce had been finalized.
Putin has two grandsons, born in and His cousin, Igor Putin , was a director at Moscow based Master Bank and was accused in a number of money laundering scandals.
Official figures released during the legislative election of put Putin's wealth at approximately 3. In , Putin reported an income of 3. According to Russian opposition politicians and journalists, Putin secretly possesses a multi-billion dollar fortune   via successive ownership of stakes in a number of Russian companies.
These contradictory claims were analyzed by Polygraph. Polygraph concluded:. There is uncertainty on the precise sum of Putin's wealth, and the assessment by the Director of U.
National Intelligence apparently is not yet complete. However, with the pile of evidence and documents in the Panama Papers and in the hands of independent investigators such as those cited by Dawisha, Polygraph.
The name of Vladimir Putin does not appear in any of the records, and Putin denied his involvement with the company.
State Department as being treated by Putin as his personal bank account, had been central in facilitating this. It concludes that "Putin has shown he is willing to take aggressive steps to maintain secrecy and protect [such] communal assets.
It has been suggested he was picked for the role because of his low profile. Garry Kasparov says, "[Putin] controls enough money, probably more than any other individual in the history of human race".
As president and prime-minister, Putin has lived in numerous official residences throughout the country.
In August , critics of President Vladimir Putin listed the ownership of 20 villas and palaces, nine of which were built during Putin's 12 years in power.
After the dacha burned down in , Putin built a new one identical to the original and was joined by a group of seven friends who built dachas nearby.
In , the group formally registered their fraternity as a co-operative society, calling it Ozero "Lake" and turning it into a gated community.
The mansion, built on government land and sporting 3 helipads, and a private road paid for from state funds and guarded by officials wearing uniforms of the official Kremlin guard service, is said to have been built for Putin's private use.
Putin has received five dogs from various nation leaders, namely: Buffy, Yume, Verni, Pasha and Konni. Konni died in Putin is Russian Orthodox.
His mother was a devoted Christian believer who attended the Russian Orthodox Church, while his father was an atheist. His mother secretly baptized him as a baby, and she regularly took him to services.
According to Putin, his religious awakening began after a serious car crash involving his wife in , and a life-threatening fire that burned down their dacha in August Putin states, "I did as she said and then put the cross around my neck.
I have never taken it off since. There are things I believe, which should not in my position, at least, be shared with the public at large for everybody's consumption because that would look like self-advertising or a political striptease.
Putin is frequently seen promoting sports—including skiing , badminton , cycling , and fishing —and a healthy lifestyle among Russians.
Putin has been practicing judo since he was 11 years old,  before switching to sambo at the age of fourteen. He was awarded eighth dan of the black belt in , becoming the first Russian to achieve the status.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. President of Russia from to and again since For other uses, see Putin surname. In this Eastern Slavic name , the patronymic is Vladimirovich and the family name is Putin.
Alexander Lukashenko. Lyudmila Shkrebneva. Main article: Vladimir Putin's First Cabinet. Main article: Vladimir Putin's Second Cabinet.
Main article: Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War. See also: Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War.
See also: Vladimir Putin presidential campaign. Main article: Russian constitutional referendum. Main article: Domestic policies of Vladimir Putin.
See also: — Russian protests , Bolotnaya Square case , and — Russian protests. This section needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. February Main articles: Environment of Russia and Environmental issues in Russia.
Main article: Religion in Russia. Main article: Russian military reform. Main article: Human rights in Russia.
See also: Media of Russia. Main article: Foreign policy of Vladimir Putin. See also: Foreign relations of Russia and List of international presidential trips made by Vladimir Putin.
Main article: Assassination of Alexander Litvinenko. Main article: Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal. See also: Israel—Russia relations and Iran—Russia relations.
Main article: Public image of Vladimir Putin. Main article: Putinisms. Main article: Electoral history of Vladimir Putin.
See also: Panama Papers. Main article: Pets of Vladimir Putin. Retrieved 2 May The New York Times. Business Insider. The Times.
Retrieved 23 October Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 18 October Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 1 July Kuchins eds.
Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 April Journal of Democracy. Cambridge University Press.
Retrieved 24 July Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Petersburg Known as Petrograd and Leningrad? Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 31 July First Person.
Catherine A. Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 16 April The Washington Post.
Vladimir Putin and Russian Statecraft , p. Moscow: Panorama. Retrieved 8 April — via YouTube. Troubador Publishing Ltd. But these were the honeymoon days and she was already expecting their first child when he was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute in September [ Thus Comrade Putin became Comrade Platov.
Oxford University Press. He returned to work in Leningrad's First Department for intelligence for four and a half years, and then attended the elite Andropov Red Banner Institute for intelligence training before his posting to the German Democratic Republic in Public Affairs.
I worked there for about four and a half years, and then I went to Moscow for training at the Andropov Red Banner Institute, which is now the Academy of Foreign Intelligence.
International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 March New York: Riverhead. Retrieved 3 March Putin's career rooted in Russian KGB. Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 11 December Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
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Archived from the original on 10 OctoberVincas Mykolaitis-Putinas ( m. sausio 6 d. Pilotiškėse, Marijampolės apskritis – m. birželio 7 d. Kačerginėje, Kauno unifor950.comotas Vilniaus Rasų kapinėse.) – XX a. Lietuvos poetas ir prozininkas, dramaturgas. Labiausiai žinomas savo simbolistiniais eilėraščiais ir romanu „Altorių šešėlyGimė: m. sausio 6 d., Pilotiškės, . Putinas visų pirma lyrikas, bet jo žymiausiaus kūrinys — psichologinis intelektualinis romanas apie dvilypumą, vidines iliuzijas. XIX a. pab. - XX a. I p. filosofinės pasaulėjautos rašytojas. Paprastasis putinas (lot. Viburnum opulus) - tai daugiametis krūmas arba medis, užaugantis iki 4 m aukščio. Lapai priešiniai, stambiai dantyti, su skiautelėmis. Žiedai skėčio pavidalo. Žiedlapiai baltos arba gelsvos spalvos. Vaisius – Vaisius – kartus, raudonas, sultingas kaulavaisis.